Bulletin "Veterinary biotechnology"

Veterynarna biotehnologija – Veterinary biotechnology, 2018, 32(1), 232-238 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.31073/vet_biotech32(1)-30

RUBLENKO N.M., e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., DERYABIN O.M.GOLOVKO A.M.

State Scientific Control Institute of Biotechnology and strains (DNKIBSHM)


Introduction. Salmonella ranks one of the first among bacterial pathogens in the rate of morbidity. Common cause of zoonoses among all bacterial pathogens. Nowadays the large number of whole-genome analysis of different bacterial agents were conducted. The results of them indicate that the main differences between populations of one species consist in plasmids, transposons and prophages. The latter ones infect bacteria, but in contrast to lytic, the temperate phages incorporate into genome of bacteria and replicates within it. Thus, temperate phages are become transferred to next generations. Significant contribution of temperate phages to bacterial pathogenesis is determined for the most part by their the genes, which express new traits. Previously we identified prophage genes in the isolates and strains of Salmonella. Based on this identification we made induction of temperate phages by Mitomycin C.

The aim of the study. To detect existence of temperate phage in strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica.

Materials and methods. Induction was conducted in 4 strains isolated during November-December 2015 in Odesa region (S. typhimurium VM2) and Zaporizhia region (S. enteritidis PgA2) and during January – June 2016: S. virchow L116, S. enteritidis S1. Also the strain from National Center of Strains – S. dublin 373 was investigated. A random sampling was made according to carriage of prophage genes: sodC1, coding Cu, Zn- superoxide dismutases; gipA – gene of temperate phage Gifsy-1, conferring survival in Peyer’s patches, sopE – effector protein of T3SS.

Results and discussion. All strains have detected lysis zones, which indicate the presence of temperate phage and its induction. Titers of inducted phages was calculated in pfu/ml (plaque forming units).

Conclusions and perspectives of further research. The presence of temperate phage and its ability to be induced under the influence of the mitomycin C have been identified, indicating that the prophages are retained in the genome of the bacterium. Moderate phages have been identified in new isolates as well as in the museum strain S. dublin 373. Consequently, despite the fact that the phages are localized on the extrachromosomal elements, they can be carried for a long time without straining the strain in the environment. The prospect of further research is seen in the isolation of the bacteriophage and the characterization of its biological properties.

Keywords: salmonella, bacteriophages, pathogenicity genes, induction


  1. Kirk, M.D., Pires, S.M., Black, R.E., Caipo, M., Crump, J.A., Devleesschauwer, B. et al. (2015). World Health Organization estimates of the global and regional disease burden of 22 foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases, 2010: a data synthesis. PLoS medicine, 12, 12.
  2. Canchaya, C., Fournous, G. & Brüssow, H. (2004). The impact of prophages on bacterial chromosomes. Molecular microbiology, 53(1), 9–18.
  3. Shevchenko, T.P., Budzanivs'ka, I.G., Polishhuk, V.P. (2013). Virusy mikroorganizmiv [Viruses of microorganisms]. K.: Globus [in Ukrainian].
  4. Switt, A.I., Sulakvelidze, A., Wiedmann, M. et al. (2015). Salmonella phages and prophages: genomics, taxonomy, and applied aspects. Methods Mol. Biol., 1225, 237–287.
  5. Wommack, K.E., Williamson, K.E., Helton, R.R., Bench, S.R., Clokie, M.R.J., Kropinski, A.M. et al. (2015). Bacteriophages. Methods and Protocols. Berlin: Springer.
  6. Jain, R., Rivera, M.C., Moore, J.E. & Lake, J.A. (2002). Horizontal gene transfer in microbial genome evolution. Theoretical population biology, 61(4), 489–495.
  7. Hanlon, G.W. (2007). Bacteriophages: an appraisal of their role in the treatment of bacterial infections. International journal of antimicrobial agents., 30(2), 118–128.
  8. Rublenko, N.M., Derjabin, O.M., Golovko, A.M. & Pinchuk, N.G. (2016). Vyjavlennja ta analiz poshyrennja geniv pomirnyh bakteriofagiv u shtamah Salmonella enterica [Detection and analysis of the distribution of moderate bacteriophage genes in Salmonella enterica strains]. Naukovyj visnyk veterynarnoi' medycyny − Scientific Herald of Veterinary Medicine, 1, 95–102 [in Ukrainian].
  9. Tomasz, M., Lipman, R., Chowdary, D., Pawlak, J., Verdine, G.L. & Nakanishi, K. (1987). Isolation and structure of a covalent cross-link adduct between mitomycin C and DNA. Science., 235(4793), 1204–1208.
  10. Ho, T.D., Figueroa-Bossi, N., Wang, M., Uzzau, S., Bossi, L. & Slauch, J.M. (2002). Identification of GtgE, a novel virulence factor encoded on the Gifsy-2 bacteriophage of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Journal of bacteriology, 184(19), 5234–5239.
  11. Stanley, T.L., Ellermeier, C.D. & Slauch, J.M. (2000). Tissue-specific gene expression identifies a gene in the lysogenic phage Gifsy-1 that affects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium survival in Peyer’s patches. Journal of bacteriology, 182(16), 4406–4413.
  12. Mirold, S., Rabsch, W., Rohde, M., Stender, S., Tschäpe, H., Rüssmann, H. et al. (1999). Isolation of a temperate bacteriophage encoding the type III effector protein SopE from an epidemic Salmonella typhimurium strain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96(17), 9845–9850.
  13. Schatten, H., & Eisenstark, A. (2007). Salmonella: methods and protocols. Berlin: Springer.
  14. Kubori, T., Sukhan, A., Aizawa, S.I. & Galán, J.E. (2000). Molecular characterization and assembly of the needle complex of the Salmonella typhimurium type III protein secretion system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(18), 10225–10230.
  15. Hensel, M., Shea, J.E., Waterman, S.R., Mundy, R., Nikolaus, T., Banks, G. et al. (1998). Genes encoding putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 are required for bacterial virulence and proliferation in macrophages. Molecular microbiology, 30(1), 163–174.

Download full text in PDF