Bulletin "Veterinary biotechnology"

Veterynarna biotehnologija – Veterinary biotechnology, 2018, 32(1), 291-302 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.31073/vet_biotech32(1)-38

FOTINA H.A., e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.TION M.T.

Sumy National Agrarian University


Introduction. Abrus precatorius is highly regarded as universal panacea in herbal medicine. Hence the plant may be used in the treatment of immuned compromised diseased conditions in animals.

The goal of the work. In view of this phytochemical screening, proximate analysis, median lethal dose (LD50), haematological and biochemical effects of various extracts of Abrus precatorius seed was studied in Mus musculus.

Materials and methods of research. Nineteen (19) mice weighing 25.3± 1.7g were used for the study. Two (2) mice (one male and one female) weighing 24.8± 2.7g and two male mice weighing 25.8± 0.8g were used for determination of median lethal dose of the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts respectively. Whereas the remaining fifteen (15) mice divided into 3 groups of 5 each were used for haematological and biochemical studies. The 1st group was administered 1ml of distilled water and group 2 and 3 were administered one-tenth (18.75mg/kg) of LD50 (187.5mg/kg) of aqueous seed extract of Abrus precatorius, for a period of 4 weeks. Results showed that ethanolic and methanolic extracts recorded yield of 7.05% and 0.66% respectively. Proximate analysis showed the presence of moisture content, ash, crude protein, and crude fiber content while carbohydrate content was estimated by subtracting the values obtained for fat and protein from organic matter. The percentage of organic matter was calculated by subtracting the percentage of ash from one hundred (100).

Results of research and discussion. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, saponins, and reducing sugars in both ethanolic and methanolic extracts. But cardiac glycosides were present in methanolic extract. The LD50 of aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts was estimated at 187.5±62.5mg/kg and 175±75mg/kg respectively. Haematology revealed increased packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) whereas red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the group treated with methanolic and ethanolic extract. But plasma biochemistry revealed significantly decreased (P<0.05) total protein, albumin, cholesterol, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio whereas creatinine and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased. In conclusion, seed extracts of Abrus precatorius are very toxic and can be used as blood tonic, immunosupressants, hypocholesterolaemic and renotoxic.

Conclusions and prospects for further research: 1. Phytochemical principles are responsible for biological activity of plants. The presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and saponins in the methanol and ethanol seed extracts of Abrus precatorius seed shows that the seed may have an array of biological activity. The findings agree with the report of Saganuwan et al. (2011) indicating that the aqueous extract of Abrus precatorius have Phytochemical principles that may have biological activities. 2. Plant alkaloids are reported to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and adaptogenic activities which help to alleviate pains, develop resistance against diseases and endurance against stress.

Keywords: Phytochemical screening, Abrus precatorius seed, immunosuppressant, blood tonic, hypocholesterolaemic, renotoxicity.


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