Bulletin "Veterinary biotechnology"

Veterynarna biotehnologija – Veterinary biotechnology, 2018, 32(1), 319-323 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.31073/vet_biotech32(1)-42

SHCHERBAN E.P., e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., DOVBYSH E.B., e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.KONOPОLSKI A.P.e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Ukrainian laboratory of quality and safety of agricultural products, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine


Introduction. The biologic preparations of insecticide-accuracies action which include aversectines show high perspectives for using them in agriculture and veterinary practice. A number of their positive properties allow to reduce the negative impacts of it on agrocoenosis. But on the other hand the biologic preparations effect on honeybees negatively.

The goal of the work. The objective of this study was to determine possible effects of the test item Aktarofit, EC, of biological origin (a.i. Aversectines C, 2g/L) on honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from oral exposure. Materials and methods. The oral toxicity test was conducted in the laboratory over 4-h, 24-h, 48-h and 72-h test periods following the OECD N213 (1998). The honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Carpathians) was used as test organism. The test was carried 3 replicate groups with young adult worker bees from healthy colony of our laboratory. The bees were kept under test conditions (the temperature – 26,5–27,3°C; the relative humidity – 70,5–73,2 %) in darkness. Nominative test doses in the oral toxicity test were 2.0, 1.0. 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 μg a.i./bee. At each dose and treatment 3 replicate groups (of 10 bees each) were tested. The number of dead bees in the individual test cages was recorded after 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours in the oral toxicity test. The LD50 values with 95% confidence limits of the test were calculated using Litchfield and Wilcoxon’s method.

Results of research and discussion. In the oral toxicity tests the predetermined nominal concentrates of test item of 2.0, 1.0. 0.1, 0.01, 0.001 μg a.i./bee corresponded the actual concentrations in feed of 1.05, 0.66. 0.05, 0.007, 0.00099 μg a.i./bee. At the nominal dose level of 2.0–0.01 μg a.i./bee a mortality of 40–100 % was observed at the end of the 24 hour test period, through 72 hour under dose level of 0,01 μg a.i./bee the observed mortality was 63,3 % and under the higher dose level the mortality was 100%. A statistically significant effect of the test item at 0.001 μg a.i./bee was not observed. The bees completely consumed the proposed feed, the mortality rate was 6.7 %. Deviations in the behavior of bees were not observed. Thus, after the spoilage of the feed, the mortality of bees increased and their behavior changed. A direct dependence of these indices on the nominal feed concentrations for bees was observed. The oral LD50 value for test item through 72 h was 0.0048 (0.0037÷0.0062) μg a.i./bee respectively. The test item may be considered as the highly-dangerous for the honeybees, the first class of danger.

Conclusions and prospects for further research. The biologic preparation Aktarofiet concerns to the first class of danger to honeybees, highly-dangerous. It manifests the neurotoxic impact for honeybees. The mortality and behavior of honeybees are directly depend upon the concentration of test item in the consumed feed for the bees. The oral LD50 value for Aktarofiet through 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 0.025 (0.015÷0.041), 0.007 (0.005÷0.0097) and 0.0048 (0.0037÷0.0062) μg a.i./bee respectively.

Keywords: biologic preparation, bee, oral toxicity, LD50, mortality


  1. Isaienko, V.M. & Patyca, V.P. (2007). Ekolohichna rol avermektyniv u formuvanni zbalansovanykh ahroekosystem [Ecological effect of avermectins in the formation of steady agroecosystems]. Silskohospodarska mikrobiolohiia – Agricultural microbiology, 5, 15–30. [in Ukrainian].
  2. OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals. Honeybees, Acute Oral Toxicity Test. (1998). Retrieved from https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-213-honeybees-acute-oral-toxicity-test_9789264070165-en.
  3. Litchfield, J.T. & Wilcoxon, F.A. (1949). Simplified method of evaluating dose-effect experiments. Jour. Pharmacol. and Exper. Ther., 96, 99–113.
  4. Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). (7th ed.). (2017). Retrieved from https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ghs_rev04/English/ST-SG-AC10–30-Rev4e.pdf.

Download full text in PDF