Bulletin "Veterinary biotechnology"

Veterynarna biotehnologija – Veterinary biotechnology, 2018, 32(1), 358-371 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.31073/vet_biotech32(1)-48

KLESHOVA Z.S., e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.GOLOVKO A.N.e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

State Scientific Control Institute of Biotechnology and strains (DNKIBSHM)


The article analyzes the prophylactic drugs against foot-and-mouth disease of various manufacturers, which are present in the veterinary market, the effectiveness of their use, revealed the causes of postvaccinal immunity breakthrough in some examples. Presented historical data on the creation of anti FMD vaccines. The measures, which are carried out and applied in CIS countries against foot and mouth disease, are analyzed. Introduction. It is known that FMD refers to so-called biological threats, namely, a group of diseases that are united under the term "zoonoses" that affect animals and humans. The disease causes significant economic losses both to the farms where it arose and to the country as a whole. Unfortunately, and still on our planet in many regions of the world and today there are outbreaks of this disease. The pathogen is a viral nature and can spread rapidly over long distances. One of the means of prevention is the use of preventive vaccines. All currently available vaccines are inactivated immunobiological drugs. There are more than 20 manufacturers of anti-foot-and-mouth disease vaccines, and different vaccine formulations are used in different regions, which must be consistent with the serotypes of the virus circulating in the area. It is important to quickly identify and determine the antigenic and genetic relevance of the strains of the virus that caused the disease, since the virus often changes its properties (mutants) to properly select the necessary vaccines. Often, the question arises as to the effective selection of prophylactic drugs for the acquisition and creation of a prophylactic reserve in countries free from the disease. This question is very complicated and important. Difficult because it is difficult to predict the possible skidding on the territory of one or another strain of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. To do this, it is necessary to conduct continuous monitoring of the epizootic situation in neighboring countries, to know the circulation of various serological types of foot and mouth disease virus, which are currently known to 7 (or more than 80 variants of the virus), their ecology, strain differences, to analyze possible ways of distribution, to make predictive models of possible course of events for pathogen penetration into the country. When conducting laboratory tests, it is imperative to determine the type and variant of the foot-and-mouth disease virus that caused the disease. This is important for the selection of vaccines. All this is necessary to make the correct management decisions of the state veterinary service.

The purpose of the work. Analyze the use of vaccines in different countries and their effectiveness, which can be valuable in making decisions on foot-and-mouth disease vaccine prophylaxis.

Materials and methods of research. Applied analytical and statistical research methods.

Results of research and discussion. The measures of struggle and prevention of FMD in different countries are analyzed. The historical certificates for vaccine production are given. The presence of vaccine against foot and mouth disease in the modern veterinary market and their production has been analyzed. The reasons why vaccination is sometimes not effective is analyzed.

Conclusions and perspectives of further research: The biological threat of foot-and-mouth disease is relevant to many countries around the world. Vaccination plays an important role in preventative measures against foot-and-mouth disease, but its effectiveness depends on monitoring studies on the presence and circulation of certain serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus and the compliance of the vaccine composition with the epizootic situation. It is extremely important for Ukraine to monitor the epizootic situation in the world with regard to foot and mouth disease, especially in neighboring countries, as well as to create a reliable protection against foot-and-mouth disease.

Keywords: foot-and-mouth disease, prevention, vaccines.


  1. Foot-and-Mouth Disease. www.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/food/animals/animal-diseases/control-measures/foot-and-mouth-disease_en.
  2. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (OIE Terrestrial Manual 2009). www.oie.int. Retrieved from http://www.oie.int/eng/A_FMD2012/docs/2.01.05_FMD.pdf.
  3. Pryskoka, V.A., Gorzhejev, V.M. & Sobko, Ju.A. (2003). Yashchur [Foot-and-Mouth Disease]. Kyiv: Rybka moia [in Ukrainian].
  4. Council Directive of 26 June 1990 amending Directive 85/511/EEC introducing Community measures for the control of foot-and-mouth disease. Official Journal of the European Communities, 224,13–18.
  5. Barteling, S.J. (1987). Foot‐and‐mouth disease vaccine production and research in the Netherlands.Veterinary Quarterly, 1, 5–15.
  6. Lozovoy, D.A., Myhalyshyn, V.V., Myhalyshyn, D.V., Starykov, V.A., Lezova, T.N., Borysov, A.V. et al. (2014). Patent RF No 2522868 Retrieved from http://www.freepatent.ru/patents/2522868 [in Russian].
  7. Monthly reports about foot‐and‐mouth disease situation. (n.d.). www.fao.org. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/eufmd.
  8. Paton, D.J. & Taylor, G. (2011). Developing vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease and some other exotic viral diseases of livestock. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci., 366(1579), 2774–2781.
  9. Gusev, A.A. (1987). Novyye podkhody v sozdanii vysokoeffektivnykh vaktsin iz lapinizirovannogo virusa yashchura [New approaches in creating high-performance vaccines from lapinized foot and mouth disease virus]. Proceedings from Actual problems of veterinary virology: abstracts of scientific conferences. (pp. 7–9). Vladimir: All-Union Foot-and-Mouth Research Institute [in Russian].
  10. McCullough, K.C., De Simone, F., Brocchi, E., Capucci, L., Crowther, J.R. & Kihm, U. (1992). Protective immune response against foot-and-mouth disease. Journal of Virology, 66, 1835–1840.
  11. Parida, S., Oh, Y., Reid S.M., Cox, S.J., Statham, R.J., Mahapatra, M. et al. (2006). Interferon-gamma production in vitro from whole blood of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccinated and infected cattle after incubation with inactivated FMDV. Vaccine, 24, 964–969.
  12. Juleff, N., Windsor, M., Lefevre, E.A., Gubbins, S., Hamblin, P., Reid, E. et al. (2009). Foot-and-mouth disease virus can induce a specific and rapid CD4+ T-cell-independent neutralizing and isotype class-switched antibody response in naive cattle. Journal of Virology, 83, 3626–3636.
  13. Juleff, N., Windsor, M., Reid, E., Seago, J., Zhang, Z., Monaghan, P. et al. (2008). Foot-and-mouth disease virus persists in the light zone of germinal centres. journals.plos.org. Retrieved from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0003434.
  14. Brehm, K.E., Kumar, N., Thulke, H.H. & Haas. B. (2008). High potency vaccines induce protection against heterologous challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus. Vaccine, 26, 1681–1687.
  15. Blignaut, B., Visser, N., Theron, J., Rieder, E. & Maree, F.F. (2011). Custom-engineered chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine elicits protective immune responses in pigs. Journal of General Virology, 92(4), 849–859.
  16. Li, Y., Stirling, C.M., Denyer, M.S., Hamblin, P., Hutchings, G., Takamatsu, H.H. et al. (2008). Dramatic improvement in FMD DNA vaccine efficacy and cross-serotype antibody induction in pigs following a protein boost. Vaccine, 19, 2647–2656.
  17. World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease quarterly report october to december 2015 www.wrlfmd.org. Retrieved from https://www.wrlfmd.org/sites/world/files/quick_media/OIE-FAO%20FMD%20Ref%20Lab% 20Report%20Oct-Dec%202015.pdf.
  18. Samuilenko, A.Ya., Andronik, A.N., Melnik, R.N., Grin, S.A., Melnik, N.V., Elnikov, V.V. et al. (2017). Tsirkulyatsiya virusa yashchura serotipa A na territorii Blizhnego Vostoka [Circulation of FMD virus serotype A in the Middle East]. Veterynaryja Kubany − Veterinary Medicine of the Kuban, 4, 3–5 [in Russian].

Download full text in PDF