Bulletin "Veterinary biotechnology"

Veterynarna biotehnologija – Veterinary biotechnology, 2019, 34, 146-154 [in Russian]. https://doi.org/10.31073/vet_biotech34-18

STARCHUK M., e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., OSADCHI N., e-mail This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., MANCHU A., e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., ENCHU V., e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

State Agrarian University of Moldova


Introduction. Rabies is absolutely incurable disease. Path rabies infection from one animal to another or from animals to humans occurs directly through the bite or scratch derived from sick animals. Prevention of rabies includes the eradication of the disease in animals, which is easier to perform in domestic animals and much more difficult for wild animals.

The goal of the work included the epidemiological study of rabies in domestic and wild animals in the Republic of Moldova.

Materials and methods. The analysis of laboratory investigations of the Republican Veterinary Diagnostic Center (RDVC) and the data of the National Agency for Food Safety was conducted during the last eight years and 2018. The direct immunofluorescence test (DIF) was used for studies of samples of the cerebellum and medulla oblongata with a specific staining fluorescent conjugate. The DIF was subsequently completed by histopathological test.

Results of research and discussion. Study results demonstrated that despite of national strategy of systematic veterinarian measures such as preventive immunization of domestic animals as dogs and cats and wildlife livestock especially foxes, inclusively raccoons and badgers. Annually, the RDVC officially confirms from 54 to 123 cases of rabies on various species of animals. In domestic animals, most cases of rabies reported in cattle and dogs. It is known that foxes are the primary natural reservoir of rabies. The prevalence of rabies particularly in forest regions is a high risk to animals and humans. According to the Zoology Institute of the Republic of Moldova, the number of foxes in the country is about 36 000 animals. Their population maintained constantly at the same level in recent years, which means that their density is about 10-12 individuals per 1000 hectares, which is almost ten times higher than the optimum average number (1-2 foxes per1000 hectares). Analyzing the data of the geographical spread of rabies in the country, it should be noted that at the regional level the rabies outbreaks were registered in almost all parts of the country in 2014-2018, but the highest incidence was recorded in the districts of Edinet, Ungheni, Anenii Noi, Causeni, Falesti, Chisinau, Straseni, Nisporeni, Soroca and Cahul.

Conclusions and prospects for further research. In all the cases and suspicious of disease in animals the highest number of cases have been reported in dogs from rural and urban areas, the most common case in wildlife was particularly in foxes. This confirms that anti-epidemic measures related to immunization of livestock with certain risk of contamination ineffectively covering these animal species. In particular, this measure relates to the immunization of wildlife, which requires adjustment methods of administration of the vaccine in the form of bait. Significant reduction of the incidence of rabies in animals and humans at the national level can be achieved by focusing on the control of rabies reservoir in collaboration of the veterinary professionals with healthcare professionals as epidemiologists, foresters, hunters, other experts. Only through sustained and coordinated efforts of all of these structures may be possible to reduce the level of virus circulation in wildlife and to be maximal limited the transmission of rabies virus to domestic animals and humans.

Keywords: virus, a reservoir of infection, diagnostic, vaccination.


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