Veterynarna biotehnologija – Veterinary biotechnology, 2020, 36, 76-85 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.31073/vet_biotech36-07
State Scientific and Research Institute of Laboratory Diagnostics and Veterinary and Sanitary Expertise
AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF PEANUTS AND THEIR PRODUCTS
Introduction. Contamination of food with various toxicants is the cause of metabolic disorders in people. Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites, which pose the greatest danger to human health. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 are quite resistant to heat treatment and processing, so they are found in foods produced in many tropical and subtropical countries, where temperature and climatic conditions are optimal for both the growth of molds and the these toxins production. Such foods include peanuts and their processed products. Therefore, one of the effective means of preventing the entry of aflatoxins into the human body is the control of raw materials for the aflatoxins content.
The goal of the work. To analyze the accumulation of aflatoxins in peanuts and products of its processing intended for direct consumption.
Materials and methods. The research was conducted during 2018-2019. The content of aflatoxins in peanuts and their products was determined by liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a fluorescent detector, column C18, Cobra Cell derivative, immunoaffinity column. Identification of aflatoxins were performed by retention time, quantification – by the method of external standards by peak area.
Results of research and discussion. During 2018-2019, the laboratory of the institute received 102 samples of peanuts and processed products. All samples were tested for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2. During 2018, 26 samples of peanut beans and 4 samples of peanut products were contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2, aflatoxins G1 and G2 were not detected. 96.2% of peanut beans samples contained aflatoxin B1 within the maximum permissible level (MPL), and only 3.8% did not meet the mycotoxin content requirements. During 2019, 63 samples of peanut beans and 9 samples of peanut products were studied. All samples of peanuts as well as 44.4% of peanut products were safe for human consumption regarding aflatoxin B1. However, 55.6% of peanut products (peanut butter and halva) were forbidden for consumption.
Conclusions. Studies during 2018-2019 have shown that the most dangerous regarding aflatoxins for consumers were peanut bean products such as peanut butter, halva, which need strict control. A significant number of samples contained aflatoxin B1, therefore there is a risk to human health if consumed systematically. It is promising to expand the range of studies of peanut bean products for aflatoxins and other mycotoxins.
Keywords: aflatoxins, peanuts, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), maximum required level (MRL).