Veterynarna biotehnologija – Veterinary biotechnology, 2020, 36, 183-189 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.31073/vet_biotech36-19
Institute of Veterinary Medicine NAAS
STUDY OF FUNGI FEED CONTAMINATION AND THEIR MYCOTOXINS
Introduction. Mycotoxins are metabolites of widespread microscopic fungi, which are one of the leading contaminants of feed and food in terms of risk to animal and human health.
The goal of the work was to study the level of feed grain contamination with microscopic mold fungi and mycotoxins in one farm in Kyiv oblast, to determine species belonging of fungi isolates and their ability to produce mycotoxins.
Materials and methods. For the study we used feeds received from the farm in Kyiv oblast. In 2019, 128 feed samples were tested from the beginning of the harvest and during its storage. To determine feed general contamination by micromycetes we used conventional mycological methods. The toxigenic properties of isolated micromycetes were studied by the effect of their culture fluids on the Tetrachimena piriformis test microorganism according to DSTU 3570-97. Toxic strains were tested for the ability to biosynthesize mycotoxins.
Results of the study and discussion. Mycotoxicological examination of feed resulted in the isolation and identification of 92 fungi strains, 64 of which were toxic ones including fungi of the genus Penicillium (23.1%), Fusarium (22.1%), Aspergillus (20.7%), Alternaria (10.9%), and Mucor (9.1%), Cladosporium (3%) and other strains (11.2%). Isolated Fusarium strains produced T-2 toxin (57%) and zearalenone (21%). 54% Aspergillus fungi strains produced aflatoxin B1.
Conclusions and prospects of further research. Study revealed that 64 of 92 strains of fungi isolated from 128 samples of fodder grain were toxic. The most spread strains were Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, and Mucor. The most number of toxic fungi were among Penicillium strains – 23.1% and Fusarium – 22.1%. It was confirm that Fusarium strains produced mostly T-2 toxin – 57% and zearalenone – 21%. Aspergillus strains produced mostly aflatoxin B1 – 54%.
During the study, the largest amount of mycotoxins was found in corn and mixed feed, almost all of the studied samples contained several mycotoxins simultaneously. In many cases, the rate of mycotoxins did not exceed the maximum permissible level.
Keywords: mycotoxins, feed, monitoring, strains, fusaria.
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