Bulletin "Veterinary biotechnology"

Veterynarna biotekhnolohiia– Veterinary biotechnology, 2023, 42, 67-80 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.31073/vet_biotech42-08

MEZHENSKYI A.A., e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.MEZHENSKA N.A., e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., KRYTSIA I.P., e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Institute of Veterinary Medicine of the NAAS

 

INDICATORS OF THE EPIZOOTIC PROCESS MANIFESTATION OF RABBIT HEMORAGIC DISEASE (RHDV (GI.1) AND RHDV2 (GI.2)) IN UKRAINE IN 2021-2022

Introduction. Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a threatening infection for rabbit farms in Ukraine. It is caused by viruses of the first (RHDV (GI.1)) and second (RHDV2 (GI.2)) types, that “appeared” in Ukraine recently in 2017-2018. Scientific studies to determine the features of the epizootic process in RHD caused by RHDV (GI.1) and RHDV2 (GI.2) have not been conducted in Ukraine, and therefore are relevant.

The goal of the work. To study the relative indicators of manifestation of the RHD epizootic process caused by viruses of the first (GI.1) and second (GI.2) types in Ukraine in 2021-2022.

Materials and methods. The studies were carried out in 2021-2022 on the basis of 28 rabbit breeding farms located in 10 different regions of Ukraine reporting RHD outbreaks, and in the laboratory of the Institute of Veterinary Medicine of NAAS. We used epizootological, clinical, pathomorphological, molecular genetic (RT-PCR), immunochromatographic and statistical methods of investigation.

Results of research and discussion. The form of manifestation of the epizootic process of RHD in Ukraine in 2021-2022 were epizootic outbreaks recorded RHDV (GI.1) in the northern, central, southern and western regions of Ukraine and RHDV2 (GI.2) in the northern and central regions.

Ukraine’s RHD rate caused by RHDV (GI.1) and RHDV2 (GI.2) was the highest in 2021 and amounted to 40,0%, while in 2022 it decreased by 12,0%.

In 2021, in 11 farms where the causative agent of the disease was RHDV (GI.1), the incidence in rabbits was 50,9%, mortality was 43,3%, and lethality was 85,3%. In 6 farms where the causative agent of the disease was RHDV2 (GI.2), the incidence was 35,9%, mortality was 21,8%, and lethality was 60,7%. In 2022, the incidence of RHDV2 (GI.2) was 57,5% and was higher of the RHDV (GI.1) by 11,7%. Mortality in rabbits from both viruses was almost at the same level – 41,1% (GI.2) and 39,3% (GI.1), while the RHDV (GI.1) mortality was high – 85,2 % and by 13,2% higher the same indicator for RHDV2 (GI.2). RHDV2 (GI.2) became more “aggressive” in 2022, as evidenced by an increase in incidence by 21,6%, mortality by 19,3% and lethality by 12,7% compared to 2021.

Conclusions and prospects for further research. RHD in 2021-2022 was distributed in different regions of Ukraine. The country’s RHDV (GI.1) rate was 36,0%, and RHDV2 (GI.2) was 16,0%. The established relative indicators of the manifestation of the epizootic process in RHD (morbidity, mortality and lethality) are slightly different from scientific publications and require further larger and longer studies using modern molecular diagnostic tools.

Keywords: rabbits, infectious diseases of rabbits, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, epizootic process, morbidity, mortality, lethality.

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